click to show more information

click to hide/show information About your Search

20100801
20100831
SHOW
Today 45
( more )
STATION
CNN 154
MSNBC 151
FOXNEWS 130
CSPAN 92
WRC 91
WBAL (NBC) 83
WJZ (CBS) 78
WUSA (CBS) 68
KNTV (NBC) 67
WJLA 66
WMAR (ABC) 63
KGO (ABC) 60
KPIX (CBS) 45
WTTG 36
KQED (PBS) 29
SFGTV2 29
( more )
LANGUAGE
English 1371
Spanish 18
Search Results 0 to 49 of about 1,391 (some duplicates have been removed)
we believe that this is critical to the gulf and their survival in the gulf. the state of louisiana has requested $407 million for a 20-year test program. we will continue to monitor the health. more importantly, one of our great challenges is the brand of the gulf of mexico, the brand of the gulf seafood. we have seven generations of family that have plied the waters in louisiana. people need to understand. there are no questions about what is in the market. there might be questions about fishing areas that are closed. we should ask those questions. this is wholesome and safe, this is a tremendously conservative science. we need to convince people about this. people instead of ordering oysters on the half shell, they are having chicken or stake. we need to overcome that. 100 + days of oil gushing and the right hand corner of the television screen has branded us as something other than what we are. we will meet that challenge. this is a very small part of the whole gulf of mexico. we need to look at the whole. this is 200 gallons of oil that has escaped from the situation. we need t
&a." >> yesterday, i signed a declaration for the state of emergency in louisiana. i signed a disaster declaration for the state of mississippi. >> as we mark the fifth anniversary of hurricane katrina, look back at the response to the crisis. it is online at the c-span library. washington, your way. >> now, a conversation on the state of the levees in new orleans five years after hurricane katrina. from today's "washington journal," this is about 45 minutes. host: joining us from new orleans is karen durham- aguilera, the task force hope leader for the army corps of engineers. guest: thanks for inviting me here today. this reduction system we are building for greater new orleans and the surrounding parishes, i oversee the program and look at the budgeting aspects. one of the things i enjoy the most is the tremendous stakeholder engagement between our levee authorities and the public in louisiana and the parishes. especially the public, they are so involved in what we did and did give us a lot of help with input and solutions. host: how would you tell someone the difference between the levee syste
in louisiana women who whom she descended. the second book, red river published in january of 2007. my pleasure to welcome lalita tademy and scott shafer. [applause] >> good evening, everybody. out of curiousity a show of hands how many of you have read the book? wow? >> you will have a chance to ask questions as well. bear with us. i don't think i need to summarize the back. sounds like everyone -- this is great. we heard a summary there. this is a story of resilience and about the brutality of slavery and the resourcefulness of your family going back several generations. i want to start at the end. your great grand mother emily grandma teet shart for petite. she died in 1936 before you were born. >> before. >> [laughter]. >> thank you, scott. >> what did you hear about your great grand mother growing up? >> i heard everything was she was elegant and she was gorgeous and she was vivacious and she was beautiful and she was amazing. and i also knew that she was color struck. i knew that she had a little judgment of people by their skin tone. and so i really didn't want to like her very mu
near ground zero. >> chuck todd in wisconsin tonight. chuck, thanks. >>> we move to louisiana and the great unknown. commercial shrimping season opened today in the gulf of mexico. this while 672 miles of gulf coastline are still tainted by oil. more than 28,000 people are working to protect the shoreline and wildlife and clean up the mess. our chief environmental affairs correspondent anne thompson was out on the water again today. >> reporter: it's a welcome sight in louisiana's bay collette, west of the mississippi river. shrimp boats trawling nets instead of boom. d.c. cooper says he's home. >> i wish we had a few more shrimp but it feels good. >> reporter: his nets bear the -- of seasons past. shrimping brings $1.3 billion per year to louisiana's economy and more than 14,000 jobs. much of the industry and its workers sidelined by the oil leak. have you seen any oil? >> no, none. >> thank god. >> reporter: that's got to make you feel good. >> it really does. >> reporter: on this trip his nets come up clean. no signs of oil as the fish are sorted from the shrimp with a net
. hurricane katrina touches down on the louisiana coast. the city's levees fail. the next morning nearly 80% of new orleans is under water. a botched government response, a poor local evacuation plan, thousands are left without food, water, shelter or safety. trapped for days as the city is looted and its people suffer. 41,000 people were heroically rescued by u.s. armed forces, many of them brave coast guard pilots. almost 1,800 people are dead and the storm has left an estimated $75 billion in damages throughout the gulf coast. five years later, what's changed and what hasn't? what lessons were learned? is this city's recovery moving in the right direction? joining us, two of the area's notable political leaders, louisiana senator mary landrieu and her brother, the newly elected mayor of new orleans, mitch landrieu. then my interview with actor brad pitt, founder of the make it right foundation, an effort to repair the devastated lower ninth ward. >> these people are pioneers. they're pioneers. this is now the greenest neighborhood in the world. >> plus, our special discussion with three
took place in louisiana, and there are signs of a return to normalcy. fish riz from florida to louisiana, which had been closed due to the spill, are starting to re-open, getting a clean bill of health from federal and state officials. so far, tests on seafood have shown no sign of oil. >> i'm not picking up anything. >> with less oil visible on the water, there's less work for the are mad da of vessels. more beaches are open for swimmers. the crisis is far from over. but signs of improvement are increase big the day. abc news. >>> coming up go back to american canyon where police are breaking up a cockfighting ring. and night market is making a comeback in chinatown. >>> the trouble on the beach is forcing the pargo -- park service to change the rules for beach fires. >> leigh: not a lot of sunset on the beaches today. temperatures through the month of july have been well below normal. what about august? we look at the seven-day forecast to see if t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t
in common. where were you born? >> new orleans, louisiana. >> new orleans, louisiana the yeah, let's hear it for the 504. how do you prepare for this whole darn thing here? >> practice. >> ok. that will get you to broadway but here you are in union square. ladies and gentlemen, two-time winner, mr. leonard oates. >> this is what i do every day. [ringing bells] >> leonard oates, ladies and gentlemen, reigning two-time champion mr. leonard oates. that completes the entire competition, ladies and gentlemen. let's hear it for everybody you heard today. the votes from the judges will now be tallied. that means up guys actually have to go to work now. we're going to name the tom three winners in the amateur and professional categories. the first place winner of the professional competition will take home a beautiful cable car bell with -- made by gilberto at the frens of the cable car museum. every year this man makes a beautiful cable car bell for this competition the mr. gad oy is pretty shy, he won't talk about his work but the craftsmanship speaks for itself the every bell every year is ind
way to go for the city. the president spoke in louisiana a few hours ago. [music] amazing grace,. >> reporter: a french quarter funeral new orleans style for katrina. mourners say it's time to bury the old girl and with her the grief of the past five years. >> bury the memories. >> reporter: the government invested $15 million to build a 350-mile perimeter of levees flood gates and pumping stations. tourism is back 80% of what it was five years ago and another trend many come to find opportunity like twin brothers who have more heating and air work than they can keep up. >> i'm hoping this is going to be a great neighborhood by the time we are done. >> reporter: as new houses are built estimated a thinker of the city's livable homes some 50,000 like this one, are vacant. now the population is down about 100,000 compared to before the storm. more than 800 louisiana families are still living in feema trailers and the decaying remnants of katrina are everywhere not just in the lower 9th ward. on thp five year anniversary the president told a crowd the government is committed to re
tonight. chip, thank you. restoring the louisiana coastline tots original beauty would actually require much more than cleaning up after just the b.p. oil leak. tonight mark strassmann reports on an environmental disaster many years in the making. >> reporter: for coastal loses' wetlands, this oil spill is just the latest wound. danny diecidues has fished these waters since he was a kid. >> biggest worrisome change is loss of land. loss of islands, which we used to fish five, six, seven years ago, there's no island left. >> reporter: gone. >> gone. just totally gone. >> reporter: louisiana's fragile coast, 30% of america's wetland, are a labyrinth of marshes, bays, and biexcuse a rich nursery for gulf marine life but generations of engineering projects have starved them and carved them up. navigation channels, dikes and levees, canals and pipelines for oil and gas companies. >> if you were to say what is the most abused landscape in the united states it would be t would be the louisiana wedlands. >> reporter: this system has to keep supplying itself fresh water and sediment or it will g
in southern california. and their home louisiana west maintained a noncalifornia edge. she's always been interested in her family stories especially ones about here great grand mother emily who died with a life savings hidden in her mattress. lalita level her position at sun miko systems to seresearch her family. she had no choice but to write about the amazing people. the result was "cane river" her novel based on the lives of slave women in louisiana women who whom she descended. the second book, red river published in january of 2007. my pleasure to welcome lalita tademy and scott shafer. [applause] >> good evening, everybody. out of curiousity a show of hands how many of you have read the book? wow? >> you will have a chance to ask questions as well. bear with us. i don't think i need to summarize the back. sounds like everyone -- this is great. we heard a summary there. this is a story of resilience and about the brutality of slavery and the resourcefulness of your family going back several generations. i want to start at the end. your great grand mother emily grandma teet shart f
involved in sex scandal in d.c. and his home state of louisiana is now the target of a democratic web ad. what about john ensign. the other republican senator engaged in a sex scandal out in nevada or did we forget mark sanford, the fellow said to be hiking the appalachian trail but in argentina with his girlfriend? now for the real felons. duke cunningham, the former congressman won't get out of prison till after the next president election. jack abramoff who served recent time. i forgot to mention dancing tom delay. also kicked out by the right part one. republican congressman bob inglis says there are a lot of things he wished he said to the tea party krou and he's saying them now. then kicked out by the right part two. who would have thought that charlie crist, not long ago the republican governor of florida would be the other party's hope for holding the senate. he's pulling better than his tea party opponent. if he wins, he could become a democrat. yes, today's jobs numbers are bad but at least the democrats are doing something about it coming back next week to save 300,000 public
mission, simple. to save herself but also to save her hometown mossville, louisiana. as i learned after a year long investigation to possibly save all of us. >> these plans are killing us. >> you see, dorothy is on a crusade with this one, wilma subra, a chemist, with stacks of evidence almost everyone denies. they are toxic avengers, the two of them together. before this journey ends, they will have washington's attention. i promise you, they will have yours as well. >> have those issues been addressed? >>> this is mossville, louisiana. for decades, residents in this community have been trying to sound the alarm for what they say is a toxic crime happening in the ground, water, air, making people sick and killing them one by one. they say those complaints have been falling on deaf ears. what happened to the people here could happen to any of us. >> hello, nice to see you. how long has this home been in your family? >> this home has been in our family since i was a little girl. we felt free here. we felt safe. we had love and community activities that brought the families together. fami
estimates put the spill at the largest numbers you've heard yet. here's joel brown with more from louisiana. >> reporter: scientists now say that bp's blown out well gushed 200 million-gallons of oil, the new government calculation is close to the previous worst case scenario estimate. for the last 19 days, the cap has been able to hold back the oil, but bp and the government want it sealed for good. today, they'll attempt the static kill. yesterday, a leak delayed the test. if the crews can complete it, they'll pump the mud into the well. >>> once we get the pressure into the well from the static kill, we'll have the option to put the cement in from the top. >> it could plug the well and the admiral cautions that the crews will need to drill from the bottom. >> the end can't come soon enough for those who make a living on the gulf waters. the charter boat captains lost the season, now they want to save the next one. >> i mean, we're 105 days in, i now, it's just, well, let's get it done. >> reporter: the captain here is on the mistake they'll get it sealed this month and his customers will
't be easy. demand down. prices crashed a month ago. and the louisiana governor says all of the seafood off the louisiana coast is safe to eat. >>> the edge back home here in virginia now. and a nightmare for two families in prince william county. that's where a car crash killed two teenagers. two cars collided on long mill road on sunday morning in haymarket. maureen has more details on the accident. >> reporter: well, police say the victims were going very fast down the road and alcohol was indeed a factor. a deadly combination that left the victims ' family and friends devastated. struggling to come to terms with the devastating loss. >> you really always think it won't happen to you or it is not going to happen to your friends. >> reporter: she says derek was like a little brother to her. he was happy an youth going. the 15-year-old was going to be a sophomore at battlefield high school in haymarket where he played football. >> he was really good at football. he loved football more than anything. >> reporter: the passenger driven -- they were traveling with a 16-year-old passenger in th
of louisiana. -> bp, and the coast guard, say they are ready o move forward with the static kill. >> science team together with bp engineers have determined it is safe to move ahead with the injection test. and the static kill at this point. >> static kill procedure involves jamming the mild deep oil well with mud and, perhaps, cement in an effort to shut it down for good. %-right.itions have to be just >> after the preparations, and the injection tests aae complete. the injection test findings will be evaluated. and that takes several houus and then they would initiate at that point what is called the static kill. >> louisiana governor bobby jindal wants bp to commit oweto a he multi-billion dollars seafood fund. >> we need bp to approve this fund. this is part of the obligation to restore our way of life. >> divers arr ring tests. ocean future society looking for oil in the waters along the louisiana coast. at first glance, there was less crude and muck than in may when they first checked. >> we went offshore looking for oil. and then made about 4 or 5 jumps. and in different spots, across
today. for the first time since bp oil began seeping into louisiana waters, the shrimp boats headed back to work. early reports suggest a bountiful catch. is seaed food from the gulf safo eat? the government says yes it is. we've taken samples to an independent lab for testing. what did they find? the exclusive results may surprise you. >> the white shrimp and a brown shrimp. >> reporter: shrimp season began today, the culmination of months of hope and anxiety for shrimpers. some oceanographers believe over 100 million gallons of oil remain submerged just beneath the surface. oil that shrimp patrick hue dredged up for us. it took just a few turns of his skiff, sit and blobs of oil came up. all this oil came up. >> yeah, there's a lot of oil on the bottom here that people don't see. >> reporter: a report earlier this month stated it wasn't just out of sight, it was gone, that 75% of the oil had been cleaned up by man or mother nature. that was the primary reason that louisiana announced it would open the shrimp season early, to the dismay of shrimpers like a.c. cooper. the vice president
covering this oil disaster since the beginning. she joins us now from venice, louisiana. anne, i thought we'd never hear those words. >> reporter: boy, i certainly didn't. there was a time i doubted it, lester, but we do have very good news tonight, and that is that this well is cemented shut from the top. it took five hours to do that. and for the first time in 108 days, officials say the people of the gulf of mexico can be assured that virtually no oil from the mccondo well will leak into their waters. however, that's not the end of the story. national incident commander thad allen has ordered bp to cement the well from the bottom as well, and bp says it will do that through the relief well process, which could start as early as next week. lester? >> anne, what about the oil collection process, given there's still a lot of oil in the gulf, does this now add more resources as they wind down at the well site itself? >> reporter: they get to shift the resources. instead of having all those large skimmers that they've had out at the leak site as a precautionary measure since july 15th when th
of louisiana. >> he fears it is also too easy for fraudster irs. but they said they had been deckhands, but i had never seen these in -- >> they said they had been deckhands, but i had never seen them in my life. >> since the oil spill, there have been 2200 more commercial fishing licenses sold than in the same period last year, and some believe some of those may have been used for fraudulent purposes. >> b.p. was paychecks to anybody with a license, so that might have spurred a lot of it, checks and balances on whether those people were really commercial fishermen. >> in the past week, the louisiana wildlife and fisheries department has begun making arrests for fraud. this man is one of three they have charged of falsifying documents. this is one of 14 b.p. claim centers in louisiana. this is where people come in to submit documentation. b.p. wants to make sure it is genuine fishermen and not fraud sters that are getting help. .>> it is the verification -- is the verification that we are going to go through. you're going to have to pay in the end. >> b.p. says it is investigating several hun
is the same. when my father left louisiana to come to california he came by himself. he had he was married and had 2 children i was not yet born. he came. got a job. sent money back. when he had enough, then my mother came with the 2 children. and then when he saved enough money he sent money back and brought his brother over. when he it more money he brought his other brother. that's a concept that's not louisiana or the south it is a concept around the family unit and the importance of that unit. >> as you have been out over the past years touring and talking about this book what reaction have you had, particularly in places like louisiana and alabama and georgia? >> it's really been gratifying. now, i have to assume those people that would be upset don't turn out. [laughter] >> good thing. but those people that turn out have just really they have been interested in genealogy and interested in their own family tree and interested in the concepts. what surprised me the most without question is i was doing my initial touring with this were the number of people who would come up to me af
wildlife affectedly by the spill including sea turtles, but in louisiana right now it is the turtle farmers fighting for survival, threatened not by oil but federal regulations. >> reporter: at the concordia turtle farm in jonesville, louisiana, jesse evans breeds 100,000 turtles, sellinged nearly two million hatchlings a year but it's getting harder. >> we survived this so far. i don't know how long it's going to last. >> reporter: in the 50s and 60s, these baby, red-eared slider turtles were the favored first pet of american children in classrooms but the food and drug administration banned the sale of turtles smaller than four inches in 1975, citing a severe risk of salmonella. the f.d.a. says the ban prevents 100,000 children a year from getting infected. but that has taken a toll on louisiana's turtle farms. half have been forced to close. so the remaining farm version filed a lawsuit to lift the ban, arguing they now use a detailed cleansing process and raise the turtles in sterile environments. >> each year they said, no, it's not good enough, and here we are 35 years later, and 98.9
. the city and the region itself. louisiana loses about a football field sized piece of land every 40 minutes or so. which means this is what's happening to the louisiana coast over the course of decades. it's literally disappearing. the result of all our picking a fight with god handiwork is that new orleans in effect has moved. the city has not picked up and shifted, but the result of us waging war on the river, waging war on the geography here, thinking we know better, keeping the river from building land like it wants to, the result is that new orleans is 20 miles closer to the sea than when it was founded because what used to be land, what should be land is now water. now on this five-year anniversary of katrina, after a near existentential blow to this city, hey, thanks mr-go, we are now making a whole new set of decisions to keep this city here. the hurricane and storm damage risk reduction system -- that's its name. i would prefer, of course, something more nicknamy like mr-go. the post-katrina you and i paid for it system to try to protect this city is a $15 billion project that is a
of the coastline of louisiana and mississippi. noaa and fda have access to the data that is used to drive reopening decisions within state waters within 3 miles of coastline of louisiana and alabama? >> the answer is yes. the protocol that was developed jointly by fda, epa and noaa, along with the five gulf coast states, calls for the states to provide that data to fda and noaa. for reopening purposes, the states are acting under their own authority, as i think you know. >> what role does the fda and noaa have in the opening and closing of state waters? >> when the state has made a decision that they would like to reopen a portion of their waters for a particular fishery, of for example, for finned fish or for shrimp, they develop a sampling protocol or plan that identifies how many of the species and where they're going to be located that they intend to collect. the fda and noaa . review that proposal and either concur with it or make recommendations for changes. they then go out and collect samples and submit them to the laboratory where the sensory testing that i described a minute ago is perfor
a majority of louisiana voters, 61%, disapprove of the president's handling of the gulf oil spill. just 33% believe president obama has done a better job of helping louisiana through a crisis. by contrast, 54% say president bush's leadership on katrina was better than obama's on the spill. charles blow, help me out here. >> i think part of what you're seeing is reaction to the drilling moratorium. i mean, that struck home with people more, i think, than most parts of the spill. >> what do you mean? what do the numbers reflect? >> i think part of what it reflects is that the fact that 1 in 8 or something people in louisiana are employed in some way by the drilling business. it's inextricablely blink linked to that part of the world. as much as you want to demonize bp, no one wants to see president obama attack in that part of the world the drilling apparatus. i think that, you know, he has taken a beating in louisiana. i'm from louisiana and hear my mom talk about this all the time. he has taken a real beating down there about the economic impact of the moratorium. >> holding up on drilling
way overboard in using kechl ka chemicals to break up the oil. wolf reynolds is in louisiana, and bp says carpet bomb despite the dispersant used, he says the coast guard regularly granted bp exemptions. documents show the coast guard granted more than 74 exemptions in 48 days. what else can you tell us, reynolds? >> i can tell you that's exactly right. when they first started after the explosion at the deepwater horizon, they were using roughly 25,000 gallons of that per day, at a rate of 25,000 per day. they're using it not only on the surface but also underwater. the use was halted temporarily while the epa conducted tests to really examine the safety of the dispersants. they were allowed but the epa said they needed to be used at a much lower rate. but we're talking about a total of 1.8 million gallons of dispersant in the gulf of mexico as we speak. there are so many mysteries regarding this. we're not sure of the long-term effects, what it might mean to the ecology of the gulf of mexico. i can tell you this, though, the statement of the epa raeds they believe the dispersant wou
the lower ninth ward and other parts of the city. in louisiana, more than 1400 people died as a result of katrina. >> of the 50 major levee breaches, those along the industrial canal were among the most compromised. what happened is that water got pushed from lake borne, it funnel sbud the sbintracoastal waterway, and it just couldn't hold back that fury. this is the canal here, and this is what it looked like afterwards. you can see the breaches and the water everywhere. this system was so compromised that those that stayed in new orleans after katrina were concerned that even a tropical storm could put them back under water. five years later, the united states army corps of engineers says the city is safer than ever, thanks to $14 billion of federal bunfunds that's being u to build and rebuild pumping station, breakwaters and armory. the project began in late 2005, and the corps said it's about one-third complete. it promises a 100-year level of flood protection and it's slated to be finished in june of 2011. already the three major canals you can see here had been reinforced and gat
.com/freenightstay. you've got staying power. >>> where did the money promised to louisiana go after hurricane katrina? in a word, oil. the story and douglas brinkley joins me. # glen beck draws a crowd on the mall on a summer saturday. i got to tell you, that's not so hard. [ male announcer ] how do you know when something's good? when something's safe? you talk to these guys. they go through every car and truck we make with a big fat red pencil. because they know a family's going to be inside. a teenager. a guy on the way to the job. the engineers of chevrolet. just another reason why we can offer a 5-year 100,000 mile powertrain warranty. and another reason why a chevy's a chevy. [ male announcer ] at ge capital, we're out there every day with clients like jetblue -- financing their fleet, sharing our expertise, and working with people who are changing the face of business in america. after 25 years in the aviation business, i kind of feel like if you're not having fun at what you do, then you've got the wrong job. my landing was better than yours. no, it wasn't. yes, it was. was not. yes, it was.
miners in chile. >> brown: we have two stories from the louisiana coast. betty ann bowser examines the mental-health toll that began with hurricane katrina. >> even five years later, people here in the gulf are still experiencing emotional trauma. and for some, it's gotten worse since the oil spill. >> lehrer: and we assess the state of the levees protecting new orleans from another storm. >> brown: plus, paul solman talks to author robert mnookin about the rewards and challenges of negotiating. >> bar gaping with the devil is a book about the most difficult kinds of negotiations, where your adversary is someone you don't trust, you think may be out to harm you. you may even think they're evil. >> lehrer: that's all ahead on tonight's "newshour." major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... this program was made possible by the corporation for public
in new jersey. >> reporter: 107 dogs turned in by their owners on the gulf coast of louisiana who could no longer keep them, and many we are told lost jobs because of the oil spill. >> they were probably turned in by families who miss them very much but fell on hard times and could not take care of them. >> we have seen a double or triple in take, so a lot of people are moving to apartments, and they cannot take pets with them. >> and these pets, they no longer have owners and they are working their way across the countries. some of the pets were owned by families for eight and ten years, and it's interesting to see the families turning out to help. another story you will find at cnn.com. lots of good stuff for you there, and we are telling you to check it out at the same time you watch us here. back to you. >>> coming up, documented, and saves. >> the george washington slaves held a reunion. we travelled with the family here. >> washington lived here for 40 years, and called mt. vernon home. he was up in philadelphia and new york for the presidency. >> the slaves were really running th
louisiana with late details, anne. >> reporter: the news fishermen here in the marina wanted to hear, the static kill is underway. it's been a 106-day journey from explosion to death to disaster. the three-month assault of oil in the gulf destroying wildlife and livelihood. bp attempted many solutions. >> trouble in the gulf as the latest attempt to stop the oil leak fails. >> reporter: a frustrating, strange string of names. >> for days, crews have been pumping heavy fluids into the well called top kill. >> reporter: outlandish devices like this four-story containment dome that never worked. tonight, perhaps static kill is the beginning of the end. here's how the static kill works. from the q-4000 on the surface, crews pumped drilling mud a mile down to the gulf floor, the mud travels through a manifold and down the well pipe. it should force the crude back down into its reservoir. retired general thad allen says static kill is the ultimate diagnostic test. >> the quicker we can get this done, the quicker we can reduce any type of internal failure we're not aware of right now. >> re
Search Results 0 to 49 of about 1,391 (some duplicates have been removed)